This is a reprint of the English Translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Gautama by Mm . Dr. Ganganatha Jha, the versatile Sanskrit scholar who will ever be. Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire: Gautama’s Nyāya-Sūtra. Posted on 10 December The Nyāya-Sūtra inaugurates a tradition of logical and. Nyaya: Gautama’s Nyaya-sutra, with Vatsyayana’s commentary (Indian philosophy in its sources) [Gautama (Authority on Nyayasastra)] on *FREE*.
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Buddhist Terms Nyaya Sutras. The connection between a sign and the thing signified, which is the basis of inference, is obvious to perception.
Contact is not the cause because we do not per- ceive the ray. The ray issuing from gautwma eye can reach an external object through glass, mica, etc. Direction, space, time and ether are also indispensable conditions in the production of knowledge.
It is said that while we see a tall object in the twilight, we at once think of a man and a post, both of which are tall. As an instance of a letter accepting a substitute we may mention gam as becoming gaeeh.
It is admitted that doubt does not arise from the recognition of common and uncommon properties conjointly. Those who maintain that rumour, presumption, probability and non-existence are valid, do not really oppose our division of the means of right gautana into four, viz.
Warning is the mentioning of a course of action the obstruction of which by somo particular person led to bad consequences, e. The faults are affection, aversion, and stupidity.
In the case of inference, however, the connection between a sign e. God therefore mercifully gauttama him with a second pair of eyes in his feet to protect the sage from further mishaps. Letters are not modified because there is no fixity as to the original material of their modification.
In gxutama we say that the concussion does not manifest but produces sound.
Hence the argument against the theory of modification is, according to the objectors, baseless. Misapprehension, faults, activity, birth and pain, these in their uninterrupted course constitute gautana “world.
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These are distinguished by the senses in whose spheres they lie or by the objects which they illumine. A modification may not correspond in bulk to its original material.
In it we read: Rhetoric alafikaraVedanta, etc.
So inference, says the objector, is not different from verbal testimony. Sound, some say, is eternal because of the traditionary teaching. The Vedic speech being divided on the principle of injunction, persuasion and re-inculcation. Ggautama we must admit otherness, and if there is ” other” there will be no flaw in our expression, viz. If you deny them there will be left nothing which will lead you to the establishment of the thing. The things which used to excite joy, fear and grief in the past life continue to do so iu this life.
A jar, for instance, is non-eternal because we perceive it as belonging to the genus jar-ness. Perception and other means of knowledge, says gaitama objector, are invalid as they are impossible at all the three times.
For instance, the inference that ” the hill is fiery because it is smoky sutga is based on a certain connec- tion between smoke and fire which is actually perceived in a kitchen or elsewhere. Here some byaya that i undergoes modification as y while others say that y comes as substitute for i Consequently we are thrown into doubt whether letters really undergo modifications or take up substitutes. If we suppose that sound abides with one or more of these qualities in a tangible substance, we must admit that sound is of one kind only.
This, we sjtra, is no contradiction since rumour is included in verbal testimony, and presumption, probabi- lity and non-existence are included in inference.
The Nyaya-Sutras Of Gautama: With The Bhasya Of Vatsyayana And The Vartika Of Uddyotakara
This is antecedent non-existence. For instance, if we see in the twilight a tall object which moves we do not doubt whether it is a man or a post.
Words are of two kinds: Perhaps this also explains why in spite of the great utility and importance of the work no publisher could venture to bring it out in a book form during the past so many decades.
Therefore soul is existent conclusion. Though Moggaliputta Tissa has not made any actual reference to Logic or Nyaya, his mention of some of its technical terms surra us to suppose that, that philosophy existed in some shape in India in his time about B. But we gautamaa it can apprehend things of greater and smaller bulk.
This objection does not hold good, for compari- son is established through similarity in a high degree. We admit a mind apart from the soul. The Nyayasutras were influential to the Vedanta schools of Hindu philosophy, and provided the epistemological foundations. Faults have the characteristic of causing activity. Had the eye possessed no ray it could not have perceived any object. According to the Buddhist philosophers, however, neither percep- tion nor objects havo any self-existence.
Sanskrit, literature in the Siltra or aphoristic style was presumably inaugurated at about. For instance, we can talk of this pot being not-blue, in contrast to that pot which is blue.
A heterogeneous or negative example is a familiar instance which is known to be devoid of the pro- perty to be established and which implies that the absence of this property is invariably rejected in the reason given.
We reply it is through convention that the meaning of a word is understood. But none can remember more things than one at a time. Similarly all colours— white, yellow, blue or green— are cognised by the eye.
An injunction is that which exhorts us to adopt a certain course of action [as the means of attaining good], —